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Francis Cabot Lowell从英国偷回纺织秘密

已有 470 次阅读2023-11-20 02:36 |个人分类:鸦片|系统分类:转帖-知识



The technology for textile manufacturing in the Lowell mills was largely derived from British textile industry practices, which were guarded as trade secrets. In the early 19th century, the United States sought to develop its own industrial capabilities, and there was significant interest in adopting and adapting British technology for textile production.

Francis Cabot Lowell, after whom the city of Lowell, Massachusetts is named, played a key role in bringing textile technology to the United States. In the early 19th century, Lowell toured British textile mills and memorized the design of power looms, even though the British guarded such industrial secrets closely. Upon returning to the United States, he collaborated with other investors, including Patrick Tracy Jackson, Nathan Appleton, and Paul Moody, to establish the Boston Manufacturing Company in 1813.

The Boston Manufacturing Company built its first textile mill in Waltham, Massachusetts, in 1814. This mill incorporated the latest technology from Britain, including power looms and spinning machinery. Later, in the 1820s and 1830s, the Boston Associates, a group of investors that included Francis Cabot Lowell, expanded their operations by building the Lowell mills in Lowell, Massachusetts.

The Lowell mills were designed as integrated textile factories, incorporating all stages of cloth production under one roof. They adopted the power loom technology and spinning frames, powered initially by water wheels and later by steam engines. These mills were among the first to bring together all the processes of textile production in a single facility, and they played a significant role in the early industrialization of the United States.

The Lowell mills were not only notable for their technological innovations but also for their use of a labor force consisting largely of young women from rural areas, a workforce that became known as the "Lowell Mill Girls." The success of the Lowell mills set a precedent for the industrialization of other sectors in the United States.

It's essential to note that the British were not willingly sharing their industrial secrets. Lowell and his group engaged in a form of industrial espionage, where they memorized and made detailed drawings of the machines they observed. They returned to the United States with this knowledge and used it to establish the Boston Manufacturing Company, bringing advanced textile technology to America.

The incorporation of this technology into the Boston Manufacturing Company and later the Lowell mills contributed significantly to the industrialization of the United States, particularly in the textile industry. This transfer of technology played a crucial role in the development of the American industrial landscape during the early 19th century.


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